William Gowland: the ‘Father of Japanese Archaeology’

William Gowland: the ‘Father of Japanese Archaeology’

 

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William Gowland was one of the many foreign advisors who went to Japan in the Meiji era (1862-1912). He was a skilled metallurgist and was employed at the Osaka Mint from 1872 to 1888. He was also a keen amateur archaeologist investigating some 406 tombs of the Kofun period (about 300 – mid-6th century AD) and surveying 140. The extent and accuracy of Gowland’s surveys were such that he became known as the ‘Father of Japanese Archaeology’.

On his return to Britain in 1888 Gowland brought with him his extensive collection of Kofun-period artefacts. This collection, which is arguably the finest of its kind outside Japan, was later acquired by the British Museum and is now the subject of an extensive survey by a team of Japanese archaeologists.

 

ゴーランドは、1842年にイギリスのサンダーランドで、ジョージ・サンプソン・ゴーランド(George Thompson Gowland)の長男として生まれる。王立化学専門学校 (Royal College of Chemistry) や王立鉱山学校 (Royal School of Mines) で化学や採鉱・冶金学を学び、優秀な成績を修める。卒業後の1870年から1872年の間、ブロートン製銅会社 (Broughton Copper Co.) で化学・冶金技師として勤務しキャリアを積む。
そして、1872年、ゴーランドが30歳の時に一大転機が訪れる。日本の明治新政府から、大阪造幣寮(現・造幣局)のお雇い外国人技師として招聘を受けたのである。

日本古墳の研究
ゴーランドの業績として高く評価されているのが日本の古墳研究であり、「日本考古学の父」とも呼ばれている。彼の実地踏査は、近畿地方はもとより、南は日向(宮崎県)、西は肥前佐賀県)、東は磐城(福島県)まで及んでおり、調査した横穴式石室は全国406基、作成した略測図は140例にも達している。彼の科学的・実証的な調査・研究は、当時の学問水準をはるかに超えており、現在でも十分に通用するものである。ゴーランドの日本古墳の研究成果論文は、イギリス帰国後9年が経過した1897年に初めて発表された。

 

(論文)The Dolmens and Burial Mounds in Japan ; 日本のドルメンと埋葬墳(1897年

 

 

The remains of Inari-jinja

As I'm much interested in visiting small shrine in Osaka, I always check it by Web surfing. One day I found a picture which shows the remains of Inari-Jinja(shrine). The picture was used on someone's website and it was taken in Higashi-osaka. Looking at the picture carefully, it showed detail address on it. I tried to check it on Google Map because I wanted to see actual image of the shrine. However, Google Map did not indicate the position correctly. I thought that Google Map was not able to show a right position because the shrine is located at very narrow space in small area. As I did not have any other choice so visiting actually it. I visited there by my bicycle. At first I thought it was easy for me to find the shrine because I sometimes passed near the road of the shrine before. Getting there I checked the location of the shrine in details several time. However, I did not find the shrine finally. In my experience of over 300 times' visiting shrines for years. It is first for me. Many buildings have been constructed in the area and the town has changed completely. As I believe that such a sacred thing cannot be taken down easily even though it was the remains of shrine, I'll visit again and ask someone who living there. 

 

 

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【じゃらん旅行記】 Sakamoto119

Sakamoto119 *主に神社、寺・古墳関係の【じゃらん旅行記】です。 Sakamoto119's JARAN-journal : Mainly Shrine, Temple, and Tumulus etc. Places : Mainly Osaka, Higashiosaka, Kashiwara, Yao city in Osaka and other places of Japan. #japan #travel #jaran #journal #spot #じゃらん #旅行 #旅行記 #観光

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